Communication : a process by which information is passed between individuals
Language: any system in which symbols are used to communicate thoughts, emotions, etc. A tool to communicate between people. (ex. writing, speech, gesture, body language, iconography)
Writing: the process of communicating through use of a set of symbols (ex. the alphabet)
Linguistics: the scientific study of language
Thinking : the process of connecting and organizing experiences, memories, plans for the future, logic, reason, intuition, etc. in order to create meaning
Genetic Knowledge : information “prewired” into an organism's nervous systems at birth; instinct
Extragenetic Knowledge : information acquired during an organism's lifetime; learned information
Extrasomatic Knowledge : any information stored outside of the body, of which writing is the most notable example
Signifier: a sign's physical form (such as a sound, printed word, or image) as distinct from its meaning. Signifiers are purely conceptual, and humans are the only species on the planet capable of using signifiers, because we are capable of symbolic thought. Signifiers simplify meanings and also may carry many different meanings.
Signified: the meaning or idea expressed by a sign, as distinct from the physical form in which it is expressed
Lexicon: the specific vocabulary of an individual or group of people, as opposed to all of the available words of a language or languages
Close reading : careful, sustained and critical reading of a passage of text through highlighting, note taking, and explication (interpreting in ones own words)
Close listening: careful, sustained and critical listening to a lecture or other piece of audio through note taking and explication. (summarizing in ones own words)
Icon: any image used to represent a person, place, thing or idea
Symbolic Icon: any image used to represent a concept, idea or philosophy
Icon of Language, Science or Communication: any "practical" icon used to act in place of a function that is complex or lengthy. For example "?" stands in place of the idea that the preceding sentence is intended to be a question.
Pictorial Icon: any image designed to resemble its subject
Expository Writing: non-fiction writing which examines a subject in detail with the intent to inform, explain, describe or define
Thesis Statement: the single idea upon which every other idea in an essay is based. Here is a formula that might help you write a good thesis statement: Topic + Judgement = Thesis Statement
Topic: the subject of a piece of writing
Judgment: a statement (argument) made about the topic. a thought or opinion made about specific topic.
Utterance: Very emotional strong not very complex idea, sounds which comunicates simple ideas
Unity: all of th elements of a work. constituting a whole and pruducing a single, general effect.
Article: a word that combines with a noun to help specific that noun